Martin-Loeches I. Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 - Review.
It is widely known that pneumonia (either community acquired or hospital acquired, as like ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP)), is the most frequent type of severe infection and continues to pose a significant burden on healthcare services worldwide. Despite new diagnostic developments, most pneumonia cases continue to be difficult to diagnose clinically, partly due to acquired antibiotic resistance and the lack of a 'gold standard' method of diagnosis. In other words, the lack of a rapid, accurate diagnostic test, as well as the uncertainty of the initial etiologic diagnosis and the risk stratification, results in empirical antibiotic treatments. There are significant changes in the aetiology of patients with ventilator associated lower respiratory tract infections (VA-LRTI), which are characterised by a higher incidence of multi drug resistant organisms. Evidence suggests that when patients with VA-LRTI develop organ failure, the associated mortality can be exceptionally high with frequent complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, and septic shock. Appropriate antibiotic treatments must consider that the present cardiovascular failure seen in patients has a different association with the patient's mortality. Unlike patients with less severe clinical presentations, who have a higher chance of survival when the appropriate antibiotics are administered promptly, for patients with a severe subtype of the disease, the appropriateness of antibiotic treatment will impact the patient's outcome to a lesser extent. The present review highlights certain factors detectable at the time of admission that could indicate patients who are at a high risk of bacteraemia and who, therefore, merit more intense therapy and stratified care.