Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2021 Sep;128:112318. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2021.112318. Epub 2021 Jul 15.
The rapid development of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria due to the improper and overuse of antibiotics and the ineffective performance of antibiotics against the difficult-to-treat biofilm-related infections (BRIs) have urgently called for alternative antimicrobial agents and strategies in combating bacterial infections. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), owing to their compelling antimicrobial activity against MDR bacteria and BRIs without causing bacteria resistance, have attracted extensive attention in the research field. With the development of nanomaterial-based drug delivery strategies, AMPs-based nano-formulations have significantly improved the therapeutic effects of AMPs by ameliorating their hydrolytic stability, half-life in vivo, and solubility as well as reducing the cytotoxicity and hemolysis, etc. This review has comprehensively summarized the application AMPs-based nano-formulation in various bacterial infections models, including bloodstream infections (specifically sepsis), pulmonary infections, chronic wound infections, gastrointestinal infections, among others. The design of the nanomaterial-based drug delivery systems and the therapeutic effects of the AMPs-based nano-formulations in literature have been categorized and in details discussed. Overall, this review provides insights into the advantages and disadvantages of the current developed AMPs-based nano-formulations in literature for the treatment of bacterial infections, bringing inspirations and suggestions for their future design in the way towards clinical translation.