Decision Tools and Studies to Improve the Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection in Nursing Home Residents: A Narrative Review.

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Decision Tools and Studies to Improve the Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection in Nursing Home Residents: A Narrative Review.

Drugs Aging. 2020 Nov 11;:

Authors: Mylotte JM

Abstract
The overdiagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in nursing home residents that results in unnecessary antibiotic treatment has been recognized for more than 2 decades. This has resulted in the publication of several decision tools for the diagnosis of UTI in nursing home residents. Given all of the decision tools available, how does one decide on the approach to improve the diagnosis of UTI in nursing home residents in the context of an antimicrobial stewardship program? To address this question, this paper reviews: (a) published decision tools for the diagnosis of UTI in nursing home residents; (b) randomized controlled trials to improve the diagnosis of UTI in nursing home residents; and (c) non-randomized studies to improve the diagnosis of UTI in nursing home residents. Review of published decision tools indicates that the diagnosis of UTI is based on the presence of urinary tract signs and symptoms. However, there is considerable variation in the diagnostic criteria among the decision tools and there is no consensus as to the best clinical criteria for the diagnosis of UTI in nursing home residents. Review of four randomized controlled trials of interventions to improve the diagnosis of UTI in nursing home residents found that different interventions and outcome measures of varying complexity were utilized. Although randomized controlled trials were, to some extent, successful, it was not clear in any trial if one or more components of an intervention contributed the most to the success and there was no evidence that an intervention was feasible or sustainable after a trial was completed. Review of non-randomized trials to improve the diagnosis of UTI in nursing home residents all had methodologic limitations that make interpretation problematic. Randomized controlled trials and non-randomized studies all focused on the process before an antibiotic is prescribed. An alternative approach that focuses on assessment of the post-prescription process (antibiotic time-out protocol) is reviewed; initial studies of this protocol were inconclusive because of design limitations and additional studies are required. Regardless of what interventions are utilized, there must be provider and nursing staff commitment and motivation to improve the management of residents with suspected UTI and methods to achieve improvement must be demonstrated to be feasible and sustainable given the resources available in nursing homes.

PMID: 33174126 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]