Drugs Real World Outcomes. 2021 Jul 17. doi: 10.1007/s40801-021-00268-1. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Ertapenem, cefepime, imipenem, ofloxacin, ceftazidime, clarithromycin, cefaclor, levofloxacin, linezolid, moxifloxacin, azithromycin, piperacillin-tazobactam, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and cefuroxime are known to be associated with delirium. Other antibiotics may also lead to delirium, but no study has systemically compared delirium associations for many available antibiotics.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between delirium and antibiotics using the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS).
METHODS: FAERS reports from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2018 were included in the study. Reporting odds ratios (RORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between antibiotics and delirium were calculated. An association was considered to be statistically significant when the lower limit of the 95% CI was greater than 1.0.
RESULTS: A total of 10,015,622 reports (including 16,982 delirium reports) were considered, after inclusion criteria were applied. Statistically significant delirium RORs (95% CI) for antibiotics were: ertapenem 21.07 (16.38-27.10), cefepime 9.8 (6.37-15.09), imipenem 9.68 (6.75-13.89), ofloxacin 7.73 (4.00-14.92), ceftazidime 6.09 (2.73-13.62), clarithromycin 5.34 (4.37-6.53), cefaclor 5.32 (1.71-16.58), ampicillin-sulbactam 4.49 (2.13-9.45), levofloxacin 4.47 (3.88-5.16), linezolid 4.33 (3.28-5.72), moxifloxacin 3.51 (2.81-4.38), azithromycin 2.76 (2.09-3.64), piperacillin-tazobactam 2.41 (1.47-3.93), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 2.36 (1.61-3.47), metronidazole 1.85 (1.31-2.60), ciprofloxacin 1.83 (1.44-2.33), and cefuroxime 1.81 (1.03-3.20).
CONCLUSION: This study found statistically significant increased risk of reporting delirium with ertapenem, cefepime, imipenem, ofloxacin, ceftazidime, clarithromycin, cefaclor, ampicillin-sulbactam, levofloxacin, linezolid, moxifloxacin, azithromycin, piperacillin-tazobactam, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and cefuroxime.