Dermatological lesions among people living with HIV in Turkey

Int J STD AIDS. 2021 Sep 25:9564624211043711. doi: 10.1177/09564624211043711. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to document the dermatoses and their relationships with CD4+ T lymphocyte counts and clinical stages of disease among people living with HIV followed by our Clinical Department, to investigate the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on findings and to compare with real-world data. Medical records of people living with HIV were analyzed retrospectively in our outpatient clinic from January 2005 to June 2017. A total of 500 patient files were examined. 179 patients with dermatoses were included in the study. Demographic data, clinical and laboratory findings, dermatological findings, type and distribution of lesions, serological and histopathological examinations, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients were transferred to data forms. 84.4% of the patients were male and the mean age was 38.65 ± 11.6 years. The median CD4+ T lymphocyte count was 253/mm3 (range:0-1067). At least one dermatosis was present in 69.3% of the patients. Compared with their median CD4+ T lymphocyte counts, the ratio of CD4+ T lymphocytes was significantly lower in the group with three or more dermatoses (p = 0.019). Condyloma acuminatum (15.1%), drug eruption (13.4%), seborrheic dermatitis (11.7%), oral candidiasis (11.2%), dermatophytoses (11.2%), syphilis (8.4%), Kaposi's sarcoma (8.4%), and telogen effluvium (8.4%) were the most common dermatoses. Kaposi sarcoma (KS), oral candidiasis, onychomycosis, and molluscum contagiosum were significantly higher in the CD4+ T lymphocyte <200/mm³ group when CD4+ T lymphocyte threshold value was determined as 200/mm³. Compared with other TDF/FTC-containing regimens, a significantly higher proportion of alopecia was reported in patients receiving TDF/FTC/EVG/c (p = 0.007). Dermatoses may be a good clinical marker for detecting clinical stage and diagnosing HIV infection; also, there may be a significant increase in the number of dermatoses in advanced stages. Although there are only a few studies in the literature, it should be kept in mind that ART-associated alopecia rates may increase nowadays when ART is targeted at everyone.

PMID:34565234 | DOI:10.1177/09564624211043711