Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Apr 26:ciab359. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciab359. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Comprehensive and reliable drug susceptibility testing (DST) is urgently needed to provide adequate treatment regimens for patients with multidrug-resistant/rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB). We investigated if next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates and genes implicated in drug resistance can guide the design of effective MDR/RR-TB treatment regimens.
METHODS: NGS-based genomic DST predictions of M. tuberculosis complex isolates from MDR/RR-TB patients admitted to a TB reference center in Germany between 01/01/2015 and 04/30/2019 were compared with phenotypic DST results of Mycobacteria growth indicator tubes (MGIT). Standardized treatment algorithms were applied to design individualized therapies based on either genomic or phenotypic DST results, and discrepancies were further evaluated by determination of minimum inhibitory drug concentrations (MIC) using Sensititre MYCOTBI and UKMYC microtiter plates.
RESULTS: In 70 patients with MDR/RR-TB, agreement among 1048 pairwise comparisons of genomic and phenotypic DST was 86.3%; 76 (7.2%) results were discordant, and 68 (6.5%) could not be evaluated due to presence of polymorphisms with yet unknown implications for drug resistance. Importantly, 549/561 (97.9%) predictions of drug susceptibility were phenotypically confirmed in MGIT, and 27/64 (42.2%) false positive results were linked to previously described mutations mediating a low or moderate MIC increase. Virtually all drugs (99.0%) used in combination therapies that were inferred from genomic DST, were confirmed to be susceptible by pDST.
CONCLUSIONS: NGS-based genomic DST can reliably guide the design of effective MDR/RR-TB treatment regimens.