Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern and ESBL Production among Clinical Isolates of Salmonella Species in Mymensingh, Bangladesh

Mymensingh Med J. 2021 Apr;30(2):329-336.


The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serovars (both typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonellae) is a major public health problem especially in developing countries, which have been associated with treatment failures. Therefore, the study was undertaken to determine the current antimicrobial resistance pattern and extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production among clinical isolates of Salmonella spp. during 2019-2020 in Mymensingh, Bangladesh. In this cross sectional study, 36 Salmonella enterica isolates were obtained from blood and stool culture of suspected 200 enteric fever and 100 gastroenteritis patients attending at Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Isolated Salmonella species were identified by biochemical tests and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Disk diffusion test was performed by modified Kirby Bauer method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of ceftriaxone was detected by agar dilution method. Double disk synergy test was used as a screening test for ESBL production. PCR was done for detection of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-MU genes. The isolates showed 25% resistance to Ceftriaxone and 58.3% to Azithromycin. The highest sensitivity rates were 88.9% to Meropenem and 83.3% to Amikacin. Whereas 6(16.7%) isolates were Multi Drug Resistant (MDR). Eight (8) isolates were confirmed as ESBL producer by DDST. The marked increase in MIC was observed between 8->512μg/ml to ceftriaxone. blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-MU genes were detected in 3, 5 and 8 isolates respectively. In conclusion, the current study observed, higher level of resistance to ceftriaxone and azithromycin. At the same times 22.2% isolates showed ESBL production, which is a cause for concern as it may lead to treatment failure. On the other hand the study also showed the re-emergence of chloramphenicol and Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim sensitivity.