Future Microbiol. 2021 Apr 13. doi: 10.2217/fmb-2019-0346. Online ahead of print.
Background: Antibiotics are in use since decades to treat various infections caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Diphenhydramine, an H1 receptor blocker possesses a weak antibiotic action but when combined with other antibiotics may potentiate their antibacterial activity. Materials & methods: This study investigated in vitro antibacterial activity of diphenhydramine when used alone and in combination with levofloxacin against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Results: The combined antibacterial effect of the drugs against bacteria showed a fractional inhibitory concentration index of ≤0.5, in other words, synergism. No cytotoxicity was observed as percentage cell viability was >50%. Conclusion: The combination of diphenhydramine and levofloxacin exerted antibacterial activity, and was not found to be cytotoxic when given in combination against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus.