Disseminated Exophiala dermatitidis causing septic arthritis and osteomyelitis.

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Disseminated Exophiala dermatitidis causing septic arthritis and osteomyelitis.

BMC Infect Dis. 2018 Jun 04;18(1):255

Authors: Lang R, Minion J, Skinner S, Wong A

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Exophiala dermatitidis is a melanized fungus isolated from many environmental sources. Infections caused by Exophiala species are typically seen in immunocompromised hosts and manifest most commonly as cutaneous or subcutaneous disease. Systemic infections are exceedingly rare and associated with significant morbidity and mortality CASE PRESENTATION: A 28-year-old female originally from India presented with fevers, chills, weight loss and increasing back pain. She had a recent diffuse maculopapular rash that resulted in skin biopsy and a tentative diagnosis of sarcoidosis, leading to administration of azathioprine and prednisone. An MRI of her spine revealed a large paraspinal abscess requiring surgical intervention and hardware placement. Cultures from the paraspinal abscess grew a colony of dark pigmented mold. Microscopy of the culture revealed a melanized fungus, identified as Exophiala dermatitidis. Voriconazole was initially utilized, but due to relapse of infection involving the right iliac crest and left proximal humerus, she received a prolonged course of amphotericin B and posaconazole in combination and required 7 separate surgical interventions. Prolonged disease stability following discontinuation of therapy was achieved.
CONCLUSIONS: Described is the first identified case of disseminated Exophiala dermatitidis causing osteomyelitis and septic arthritis in a patient on immunosuppressive therapy. A positive outcome was achieved through aggressive surgical intervention and prolonged treatment with broad-spectrum antifungal agents.

PMID: 29866071 [PubMed - in process]