J Oral Microbiol. 2021 Sep 26;13(1):1983322. doi: 10.1080/20002297.2021.1983322. eCollection 2021.
BACKGROUND: The use of antibiotics in dentistry is associated with the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, including commensal staphylococci.
METHODS: A total of 367 oral samples were collected, from which staphylococci were isolated and identified by using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). The antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined and molecular characteristics for methicillin-resistant staphylococci was performed.
RESULTS: A total of 103 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), among them S. warneri, S. haemolyticus, S. saprophyticus, S. pasteuri, S. epidermidis, S. hominis, S. xylosus, S. equorum, S. kloosii, S. succinus, S. cohnii, and S. simulans, were confirmed by MALDI-TOF. Resistance to most tested antibiotics was statistically higher in CoNS than in S. aureus isolates (P-value < 0.05). CoNS isolates showed high resistance to penicillin (S. saprophyticus 88.9%), erythromycin (S. haemolyticus 84.6%), fusidic acid (S. saprophyticus 77.8%), co-trimoxazole (S. epidermidis 71.4%), gentamicin (S. warneri 63.8%), and tetracycline (S. saprophyticus 55.6%). Multidrug resistance was largely observed, especially among S. haemolyticus and S. saprophyticus species. Methicillin-resistance in S. haemolyticus (38.5%), S. saprophyticus (22.2%) and S. aureus (13.5%) was associated with the presence of the mecA gene and SCCmec type IV or V.
CONCLUSION: Coagulase-negative staphylococci, especially S. haemolyticus and S. saprophyticus, seem to be a reservoir of methicillin resistance and multidrug resistance in the oral cavity.