Does ciprofloxacin prophylaxis during chemotherapy induce intestinal microflora resistance to ceftazidime in children with cancer?

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Does ciprofloxacin prophylaxis during chemotherapy induce intestinal microflora resistance to ceftazidime in children with cancer?

J Infect Chemother. 2018 May;24(5):358-362

Authors: Tunyapanit W, Chelae S, Laoprasopwattana K

Abstract
To determine the susceptibility and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ceftazidime, the commonly used empirical antibiotic in patients with febrile neutropenia, in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from the intestinal microflora of pediatric patients with cancer, who received ciprofloxacin prophylaxis during chemotherapy, children younger than 18 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoma scheduled to undergo chemotherapy were randomized to receive oral ciprofloxacin 20 mg/kg/day or placebo from the beginning of their chemotherapy. Rectal swab cultures were taken before (R0) and at 1 (R1), 2 (R2), and 3 (R3) weeks during the intervention. The antimicrobial susceptibilities and MICs of ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin were determined via the E test. Of the total 87 patients enrolled, 44 received ciprofloxacin and 43 placebo. A total of 350 isolates were obtained, 62, 49, 46 and 22 from the ciprofloxacin group and 68, 54, 38 and 11 from the placebo group at R0, R1, R2 and R3, respectively. The percentages of ceftazidime susceptibility did not show significantly greater decreases from R0 to R1-R3 in the ciprofloxacin group compared to the placebo group. The MIC50s of ceftazidime showed significantly greater increases after ciprofloxacin prophylaxis during R1-R3 compared to R0 in the intervention group compared to the placebo group (R0, 0.12 vs. 0.12; R1, 0.19 vs. 0.12; R2, 0.19 vs. 0.12 and R3, 0.38 vs. 0.09 μg/mL, respectively). Due to the increasing MIC50 of ceftazidime over time after ciprofloxacin prophylaxis, the use of ceftazidime in patients who have previously had ciprofloxacin prophylaxis needs to be closely monitored.

PMID: 29426774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]