Effectiveness of a Multicomponent Intervention to Reduce Multidrug-Resistant Organisms in Nursing Homes: A Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial

JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Jul 1;4(7):e2116555. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.16555.

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Preventing MDROs can reduce the risk of subsequent transmission and infection.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a multicomponent infection prevention intervention can reduce MDRO prevalence in nursing homes (NHs).

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cluster randomized clinical trial of a multicomponent intervention was conducted in 6 NHs in Michigan from September 2016 to August 2018. Three NHs adopted a multicomponent intervention, while 3 control NHs continued without investigator intervention. Study visits were conducted at baseline; days 7, 14, 21, and 30; and monthly thereafter for up to 6 months or discharge. Visits included clinical data collection and MDRO surveillance culturing of multiple body sites and high-touch surfaces in patient rooms. Any patients who provided informed consent within 14 days of admission to the NH were enrolled in this study. Non-English speakers and patients receiving hospice care were ineligible. Analysis was performed from November 2018 to February 2020.

INTERVENTIONS: Intervention NHs adopted a multicomponent intervention that included enhanced barrier precautions, chlorhexidine bathing, MDRO surveillance, environmental cleaning education and feedback, hand hygiene promotion, and health care worker education and feedback. Control nursing homes continued standard care practices.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome, presence of MDROs, was measured longitudinally in the patient and room environment and was evaluated using generalized mixed effect models. The secondary outcome, time to new MDRO acquisition, was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models.

RESULTS: A total of 6 NHs were included, with 245 patients (mean [SD] age, 72.5 [13.6] years; 134 [54.7%] women) enrolled; 3 NHs with 113 patients (46.1%) were randomized to the intervention group and 3 NHs with 132 patients (53.9%) were randomized to the control group. A total of 132 patients (53.9%) were White, and 235 patients (95.9%) were receiving postacute care. Over 808 study visits, 3654 patient cultures and 5606 environmental cultures were obtained. The intervention reduced the odds of MDRO prevalence in patients' environment by 43% (aOR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.35-0.94), but there was no statistically significant difference on the patient level before or after adjustment (aOR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.29-1.14). There were no significant reductions in time to new acquisition for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (hazard ratio [HR], 0.20; 95% CI, 0.04-1.09), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.46-1.53), or resistant gram-negative bacilli (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.73-1.78).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This cluster randomized clinical trial found that the multicomponent intervention reduced the prevalence of MDROs in the environment of NH patients. Our findings highlight the potential for multicomponent interventions to directly and indirectly reduce MDRO prevalence in NHs.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02909946.

PMID:34269807 | DOI:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.16555