JAC Antimicrob Resist. 2021 Mar 11;3(1):dlab022. doi: 10.1093/jacamr/dlab022. eCollection 2021 Mar.
BACKGROUND: Early in vitro studies suggested that flavophospholipol has plasmid-curing effects and could inhibit conjugation by disrupting pilus formation between bacteria.
OBJECTIVES: This 36-day controlled-challenge study aimed to evaluate the anti-conjugative and plasmid-curing effect of flavophospholipol in vivo on plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in MDR transconjugant Salmonella Enteritidis in chickens.
METHODS: A total of 270-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to four control and four treatment groups with two doses of in-feed flavophospholipol (10 ppm and 64 ppm) and in the presence and absence of ampicillin in drinking water. Chicks were orally challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis with known plasmid-encoded AMR factors. Cloacal swabs were collected on Day 7, 14 and 23. On Day 35, all chickens were euthanized, and caecal tissue and content were collected. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done with a panel of 12 antimicrobials and interpreted according to CLSI breakpoints.
RESULTS: Flavophospholipol given in-feed at 64 ppm had an anti-conjugative effect. There was a significant reduction of acquisition of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline by the recipient strains of Salmonella Enteritidis in treatment groups given flavophospholipol in-feed at 64 ppm (P < 0.05). This was not seen with flavophospholipol given in-feed at 10 ppm.
CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that flavophospholipol given in-feed at 64 ppm had an anti-conjugative effect. The results also suggest that AMR is reduced through other mechanisms of action, which are yet to be determined. There is insufficient evidence that flavophospholipol at 64 ppm in feed alone or with sub-therapeutic levels of antibiotics had a plasmid-curing effect.