Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2020 Nov 17. doi: 10.1089/sur.2020.241. Online ahead of print.
Background: Eravacycline is a novel, fully synthetic fluorocycline antibiotic that was evaluated for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) in two phase 3 clinical trials. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the clinical cure and microbiologic response at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit and the safety of eravacycline in patients with cIAI and baseline bacteremia who received eravacycline versus comparators. Patients and Methods: Pooled data of patients with bacteremia from the Investigating Gram-Negative Infections Treated with Eravacycline (IGNITE) 1 and IGNITE4 studies were analyzed. All patients were randomly assigned in a one-to-one ratio to receive eravacycline 1 mg/kg intravenously every 12 hours, ertapenem 1 g intravensouly every 24 hours (IGNITE1), or meropenem 1 g intravenously every eight hours (IGNITE4) for four to 14 days. Blood and intra-abdominal samples were collected from all patients at baseline. Clinical outcome and microbiologic eradiation at the TOC visit (28 days after randomization) and safety in the microbiologic-intent-to-treat population (micro-ITT) were assessed. Results: Of 415 patients treated with eravacycline and 431 treated with carbapenem comparators, concurrent bacteremia was identified in 32 (7.7%) and 31 (7.2%) patients, respectively. Demographic and baseline characteristics were similar among treatment groups. In the micro-ITT population, the pooled clinical response at the TOC visit for eravacycline was 28 of 32 (87.5%) and was 24 of 31 (77.0%) for comparators among the subgroup with baseline bacteremia (treatment difference 5.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], -6.5 to 17.4). At TOC, microbiologic eradication of pathogens isolated from blood specimens occurred for 34 of 35 (97.1%) pathogens with eravacycline and 35 of 36 (97.2%) pathogens with comparators. The incidence of adverse events was comparable between treated groups and similar to that observed in the non-bacteremic population. Conclusion: Eravacycline demonstrated a similar clinical outcome and microbiologic eradication rate as comparator carbapenems in patients with cIAI and associated secondary bacteremia. Future clinical trials of cIAI should report outcomes of this important clinical cohort (cIAI with concurrent bacteremia) given their high risk for adverse outcomes.