Efficacy of Toluidine Blue-Mediated Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy on <em>Candida</em> spp. A Systematic Review

Antibiotics (Basel). 2021 Mar 25;10(4):349. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics10040349.


The effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the treatment of oral yeast infections was examined many times in recent years. The authors of this review tried to address the question: "Should TBO (toluidine blue ortho)-mediated aPDT be considered a possible alternative treatment for oral candidiasis?". PubMed/Medline and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CEN-TRAL) databases were searched from 1997 up to the 27th of October 2020 using a combination of the following keywords: (Candida OR Candidiasis oral OR Candidosis oral OR denture stomatitis) AND (toluidine blue OR photodynamic therapy OR aPDT OR photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy OR PACT OR photodynamic inactivation OR PDI). Animal studies or in vitro studies involving Candida albicans (C. albicans) and/or nonalbicans stain, randomized clinical trials (RCT) involving patients with oral candidiasis or denture stomatitis published solely in English language were included. Candida elimination method in animal, in vitro studies and RCT used was TBO-mediated aPDT. Exactly 393 studies were taken into consideration. Then, after analyzing titles and abstracts of said studies, 361 were excluded. Only 32 studies ended up being selected for in-depth screening, after which 21 of them were included in this study. All studies reported the antifungal effectiveness of aPDT with TBO against C. albicans and non-albicans Candida. In studies conducted with planktonic cells, only one study showed eradication of C. albicans. All others showed partial elimination and only one of them was not statistically significant. Experiments on yeast biofilms, in all cases, showed partial, statistically significant cell growth inhibition and weight reduction (a reduction in the number of cells-mainly hyphae) and the mass of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). In vivo aPDT mediated by TBO exhibits antifungal effects against oral Candida spp.; however, its clinical effectiveness as a potent therapeutic strategy for oral yeast infections requires further investigation.

PMID:33806003 | DOI:10.3390/antibiotics10040349