J Bras Pneumol. 2021 Jan 20;47(1):e20190286. doi: 10.36416/1806-3756/e20190286. eCollection 2021.
OBJECTIVE: In ICU patients on mechanical ventilation (MV), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common infection. However, such infection can be prevented through oral care protocols. The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of the use of chlorhexidine and oral hygiene protocols (brushing and clinical procedures) with that of the use of chlorhexidine alone (intervention group and control group, respectively) in decreasing the prevalence of VAP in patients ≥ 18 years of age admitted to the ICU and requiring MV.
METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, studies were identified through searches of various national and international databases, as well as of the gray literature, and were selected in accordance with eligibility criteria.
RESULTS: We evaluated six studies, involving a collective total of 1,276 patients. We classified the risk of bias as low in three studies, high in two, and uncertain in one; among the six risk domains evaluated, a low risk of bias was predominant in five. The results for random risks were similar in terms of direction and statistical magnitude-chi-square = 6.34; risk difference: -0.06 (95% CI: -0.11 to -0.02); I2 = 21%; p = 0.007. There was a decrease in the prevalence of VAP in the intervention group (n = 1,276) included in the meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Protocols that include the mechanical removal of oral biofilm in combination with the use of chlorhexidine can reduce the incidence of VAP among ICU patients requiring MV.