Emerging issue of fluconazole-resistant candidemia in a tertiary care hospital of southern italy: time for antifungal stewardship program

J Mycol Med. 2021 Sep 16;32(1):101206. doi: 10.1016/j.mycmed.2021.101206. Online ahead of print.


An increased number of patients is at risk of Candida spp. bloodstream infection (CBSI) in modern medicine. Moreover, the rising of antifungal resistance (AR) was recently reported. All consecutive CBSI occurred in our Hospital (consisting of 1,370 beds) between 2015 and 2018, were reviewed. For each case, Candida species, AR pattern, ward involved and demographic data of patients were recorded. Overall, 304 episodes of CBSI occurred, with a median (q1:first-,q3:third quartile) of 77 (71-82) CBSI/year. Over the years, a significant increase of CBSI due to C. albicans compared to non-albicans strains was recorded in medical wards (from 65% to 71%, p=0.030), while this ratio remained stable in others. An increase of resistant strains to multiple antifungals such as C. guillermondii was noticed in recent years (from 0% to 9.8%, p=0.008). Additionally, from 2015 to 2018 an increase in fluconazole-resistance was recorded in our Hospital (from 7.4% to 17.4%, p=0.025) and a slight increase in voriconazole-resistance (from 0% to 7% in 2018, p=0.161) was observed, while resistance to echinocandin and amphotericin B remained firmly below 2%. This study suggests a rapid spread of antifungal resistance in our Hospital; therefore, an appropriate antifungal stewardship programs is urgently warranted.

PMID:34624594 | DOI:10.1016/j.mycmed.2021.101206