Microb Pathog. 2021 Apr 27:104915. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2021.104915. Online ahead of print.
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading hospital-associated and community-associated pathogens, which has caused a global public health concern. The emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) along with the widespread use of different classes of antibiotics has become a significant therapeutic challenge. Antibiotic resistance is a disturbing problem that poses a threat to humans. Treatment options for S. aureus resistant to β-lactam antibiotics include glycopeptide antibiotic, cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic, cephalosporins and oxazolidinone antibiotic. The most representative types of these antibiotics are vancomycin, daptomycin, ceftaroline and linezolid. The frequent use of the first-line drug vancomycin for MRSA treatment has increased the number of resistant strains, namely vancomycin intermediate resistant S. aureus (VISA) and vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VRSA). A systematic literature review of relevant published studies in PubMed before 2020 was conducted. In recent years, there have been some reports on the relevant resistant mechanisms of vancomycin, daptomycin, ceftaroline and linezolid. In this review, we have summarized the antibiotic molecular modes of action and different gene mutants at the whole-genome level, which will aid in further development on new drugs for effective MRSA treatment based on describing different resistance mechanisms of classic antibiotics.