Life (Basel). 2021 Jun 3;11(6):519. doi: 10.3390/life11060519.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) remains one of the top public health issues of global concern. Among the most important strategies for AMR control there is the correct and appropriate use of antibiotics, including those available for the treatment of AMR pathogens. In this article, after briefly reviewing the most important and clinically relevant multi-drug-resistant bacteria and their main resistance mechanisms, we describe the emerging antimicrobial options for both MDR Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli, including recently marketed agents, molecules just approved or under evaluation and rediscovered older antibiotics that have regained importance due to their antimicrobial spectrum. Specifically, emerging options for Gram-positive cocci we reviewed include ceftaroline, ceftobiprole, tedizolid, dalbavancin, and fosfomycin. Emerging treatment options for Gram-negative bacilli we considered comprise ceftolozane-tazobactam, ceftazidime-avibactam, meropenem-vaborbactam, imipenem-relebactam, aztreonam-avibactam, minocycline, fosfomycin, eravacycline, plazomicin, and cefiderocol. An exciting scenario is opening today with the long awaited growing availability of novel molecules for the treatment of AMR bacteria. Knowledge of mechanisms of action and resistance patterns allows physicians to increasingly drive antimicrobial treatment towards a precision medicine approach. Strict adherence to antimicrobial stewardship practices will allow us to preserve the emerging antimicrobials for our future.