Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Apr 5:AAC.00084-21. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00084-21. Online ahead of print.
We compared the in vitro susceptibility of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected before and after treatment-emergent resistance to ceftolozane-tazobactam. Median baseline and post-exposure ceftolozane-tazobactam MICs were 2 and 64 μg/mL, respectively. Whole-genome sequencing identified treatment-emergent mutations in ampC among 79% (11/14) of paired isolates. AmpC mutations were associated with cross-resistance to ceftazidime-avibactam, but increased susceptibility to piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem. Eighty-one percent (12/16) of ceftolozane-tazobactam resistant isolates with ampC mutations were susceptible to imipenem-relebactam.