Rev Chilena Infectol. 2021 Feb;38(1):69-80. doi: 10.4067/S0716-10182021000100069.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections (HAI). Its capacity of adaptation, dissemination, intrinsic resistance to antimicrobials and of acquiring new mechanisms through mobile genetic elements, make the treatment of infections by this microorganism a challenge for the clinician. Intrinsically, P. aeruginosa, presents a reduced permeability in the external membrane, due to the expression of efflux pumps, and an inducible AmpC-type cephalosporinase. In addition, P. aeruginosa is able to acquire new resistance determinants by horizontal transfer in the form of cassettes located in integrons, and in turn located in transposons or plasmids. Within the enzymatic resistance that P. aeruginosa presents, betalactamases, including extended spectrum (ESBL) and carbapenemases. But also aminoglycoside modifying enzymes, stand out, causing this microorganism to present multi-resistance phenotypes (MDR), extreme resistance (XDR) and pan-resistance (PDR) to the called antipseudomonal antibiotics, including the new cephalosporins with betalactamase inhibitors.