[Epidemiological and microbiological evaluation of nosocomial infections caused by Candida species].

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[Epidemiological and microbiological evaluation of nosocomial infections caused by Candida species].

Mikrobiyol Bul. 2012 Oct;46(4):637-48

Authors: Erdem F, Tuncer Ertem G, Oral B, Karakoç E, Demiröz AP, Tülek N

Abstract
Nosocomial infections due to candida species are increasingly gaining importance. In this study, we aimed to determine the risk factors associated with nosocomial candida infections and also to determine the species and antifungal sensitivity of candida strains. Candida spp. strains isolated from the clinical specimens of 92 patients who were hospitalized in Ankara Research and Training Hospital between May 2008 and September 2009 were prospectively included in the study. The demographic features, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Identification and antifungal sensitivities of the candida species were determined by VITEC 2 Compact System (BioMeriéux, France). Invasive candida infection was determined in 79 (85.9%) and candida colonization was found in 13 (14.1%) of the patients. Types of candida infections were as follows; urinary tract infection in 57 (72.1%), candidemia in 26 (32.9%), surgical site infection in 6 (7.5%) and intraabdominal infection in 3 (%3.8) patients. According to the univariate analysis, being female gender, duration and rate of hospitalization in the intensive care unit, use of linezolid, prolonged duration of urinary catheterization and total parenteral nutrition and the duration of central venous catheterization were found significantly higher in the urinary tract infection group. In candidemia group, carbapenem use, rates and periods of central venous catheterization and total parenteral nutrition were detected higher which were statistically significant. In multivariate analysis for urinary tract infections female gender (Odds ratio: 3; 95% CI: 1.25-7.17) and prolonged stay (p= 0.031) in intensive care unit; for candidemia use of total parenteral nutrition (OR: 16.25; 95% CI: 2.07-127.35) were found as independent risk factors. A total of 114 Candida spp. Strains were isolated from the clinical specimens. The most common isolated species were C.albicans (n= 62, 54.4%), C.glabrata (n= 16, 14%) and C.tropicalis (n= 13, 11.4%). While the resistance rates of Candida spp. To fluconazole and flucytosine were 2.6% and 1.7% respectively, there was no resistance to voriconazole. The rate of isolates with amphotericin B MIC values > 1 µg/ml was 4.4%. Consequently, the restricted use of central venous catheter and shortening the length of stay in intensive care unit may prevent the development of invasive candida infections. The local surveillance of antifungal resistance in candida strains might aid to the decision of empirical antifungal therapy.

PMID: 23188577 [PubMed - in process]