Epidemiology and outcomes of bloodstream infections in severe burn patients: a six-year retrospective study

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2021 Jun 30;10(1):98. doi: 10.1186/s13756-021-00969-w.


BACKGROUND: Infection is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among burn patients, and bloodstream infection (BSI) is the most serious. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology and clinical outcomes of BSI in severe burn patients.

METHODS: Clinical variables of all patients admitted with severe burns (≥ 20% total body surface area, %TBSA) were analyzed retrospectively from January 2013 to December 2018 at a teaching hospital. The Kaplan-Meier method was utilized for plotting survival curves. Multivariate logistic regression and Cox regression model were also performed.

RESULTS: A total of 495 patients were evaluated, of whom 136 (27.5%) had a BSI. The median time from the patients being burned to BSI was 8 days. For BSI onset in these patients, 47.8% (65/136) occurred in the first week. The most frequently isolated causative organism was A. baumannii (22.7%), followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (18.7%) and K. pneumoniae (18.2%), in patients with BSI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that %TBSA (p = 0.023), mechanical ventilation (p = 0.019), central venous catheter (CVC) (p < 0.001) and hospital length of stay (27d vs 50d, p < 0.001) were independent risk factors associated with BSI. Cox regression model showed that acute kidney injury (HR, 12.26; 95% CI 2.31-64.98; p = 0.003) and septic shock (HR, 4.36; 95% CI 1.16-16.34; p = 0.031) were identified as independent predictors of 30-day mortality of BSI in burn patients.

CONCLUSIONS: Multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria were the main pathogens of BSI in severe burn patients. Accurate evaluation of risk factors for BSI and the mortality of BSI in severe burn patients may improve early appropriate management.

PMID:34193300 | DOI:10.1186/s13756-021-00969-w