Epidemiology and risk factors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci infections in Zhejiang China from 2015 to 2017.

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Epidemiology and risk factors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci infections in Zhejiang China from 2015 to 2017.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2019;8:90

Authors: Huang L, Zhang R, Hu Y, Zhou H, Cao J, Lv H, Chen S, Ding S, Chen G

Abstract
Background: Gram-positive bacteria are dangerous and challenging agents of infection due to their increasing resistance to antibiotics. We aim to analyse the epidemiology and risk factors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in Zhejiang China.
Methods: Gram-positive bacteria (including S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium) were collected from eighty-six hospitals of eleven cities in Zhejiang China from 2015 to 2017. The detection rates of MRSA and VRE infection were calculated for the non-duplicated isolate according to year, region, hospital level, patient age, specimen type and patient category. Meanwhile, the detected resistances of MRSA, E. faecalis and E. faecium to different antibiotics from 2015 to 2017 were compared. The risk factors and the differences in MRSA and VRE detection rates were compared using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) and Chi-square test respectively.
Results: From 2015 to 2017, the detection rates of MRSA and VRE decreased gradually. The cities with the highest MRSA and VRE detection rates tended to be adjacent; for example, the neighbouring cities Hangzhou and Quzhou had simultaneously high rates of MRSA and VRE infection. Patients from IIIA hospital who were older than 75 years and in the intensive care unit (ICU) were most at risk. No vancomycin-resistant isolate was found in MRSA. Resistance of E. faecalis and E. faecium to vancomycin and linezolid decreased slightly and then maintained a low level.
Conclusions: The detection rates of MRSA and VRE stayed at moderate and low levels during the three year period of this study, while local dissemination was found in MRSA and VRE isolates. Sustained surveillance is necessary to prevent the spread or clonal dissemination of drug-resistant strains in Zhejiang China.

PMID: 31164979 [PubMed - in process]