Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2021 Jul 15:S0213-005X(21)00207-X. doi: 10.1016/j.eimc.2021.06.011. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: With the widespread introduction of conjugate meningococcal and pneumococcal vaccines, the prevalence and etiology of invasive bacterial infections have changed. We aimed to review all cases of bacteremia in a level II pediatric department over a ten-year period in the post-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era.
METHODS: We reviewed all positive blood cultures (BC) obtained in our department between 2007 and 2016. Results were classified as contaminants, potential pathogens or confirmed pathogens, based on species, number of positive BC in the episode and the patients' medical history. Demographic and clinical data were collected for patients with identified pathogens.
RESULTS: A total of 638 positive BC were identified (6.6% of total BC); 120 (1.2%) were considered to represent true bacteremia. The most frequently identified microorganism was Streptococcus pneumoniae (29.2%), with a decrease in the number of cases between 2008 and 2015. Staphylococcus aureus was the second most common organism (19.2%) being 21.7% of these methicillin-resistant. Escherichia coli was the most common isolate in children aged less than three months.
CONCLUSION: We found a rate of true bacteremia in children similar to recent studies. Although Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most common microorganism, its prevalence may be declining. Monitoring microbiological data in children has implications in practice, particularly in local antibiotic prescription.