J Fungi (Basel). 2021 Mar 31;7(4):267. doi: 10.3390/jof7040267.
Invasive candidosis is the most common invasive fungal infection in hospitalized patients and is associated with a high mortality rate. This is the first study from a Croatian tertiary care hospital describing epidemiology, risk factors and species distribution in patients with candidemia. A three-year retrospective observational study, from 2018 to 2020, was performed at the University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. A total of 160 patients with candidemia (n = 170 isolates) were enrolled. Candidemia incidence increased from 0.47 to 0.69 per 1000 admissions in 2018 and 2020, respectively. Ninety-five patients (58.38%) were in the intensive care unit. The main risk factors for candidemia were central venous catheter (CVC) (84.38%), previous surgical procedure (56.88%) and invasive mechanical ventilation (42.50%). Candida albicans was identified in 43.53% of isolates, followed by C. parapsilosis (31.76%) and C. glabrata (12.36%), C. krusei (5.29%), C. tropicalis (2.35%) and C. lusitaniae (2.35%). The study discovered a shift to non-albicansCandida species, particularly C. parapsilosis, and made it possible to determine the main tasks we should focus on to prevent candidemia in the hospital, these being mainly infection control measures directed towards prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections, specifically comprising hand hygiene and CVC bundles of care. The potential benefit of fluconazole prophylaxis in certain populations of surgical patients could also be considered.