Epidemiology, risk factors, treatment and outcome of Candida bloodstream infections because of Candida albicans and Candida non-albicans in two district general hospitals in the United Kingdom.

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Epidemiology, risk factors, treatment and outcome of Candida bloodstream infections because of Candida albicans and Candida non-albicans in two district general hospitals in the United Kingdom.

Int J Clin Pract. 2020 Aug 09;:e13655

Authors: Raja NS

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species, known as candidemia are on the rise because of increasing complexity of surgical procedures, patient's underlying co-morbidities and shift in patient's demographics. This study was conducted to evaluate the epidemiology, risk factors, co-morbidities, antifungal treatment and outcomes of candidemia in Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Candida non-albicans (C. non-albicans) in East Sussex Healthcare Trust (ESHT), England.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective and prospective study was performed during January 2006 to June 2017.
RESULT: A total of 102 episodes of candidemia on 100 patients (55 males) were identified. C. non-albicans were predominant (55%). All isolates were sensitive to amphotericin B, caspofungin and voriconazole while one C. albicans and five C. non-albicans isolates were resistant to fluconazole. The risk factors in C. albicans and C. non-albicans groups were comparable which included intensive care unit (ICU) stay (15% vs 10%), the presence of intravascular line (35% vs 42%), previous antibiotic exposure (39% vs 49%), surgical intervention (19% vs 19%), mechanical ventilation (5% vs 8%), total parenteral nutrition (30% vs 27%) and urinary catheters (33 vs 38). The comorbidities in both groups (C. albicans and C. non-albicans) were solid organ cancer (15&14), haematology malignancy (1&3), steroid use (14&13), diabetes (9&7) and chemotherapy (2&4). Main sources of candidemia in C. albicans were line (12), respiratory (10) and urinary tracts (6) while line (26) and urinary tract (9) were predominant in C. non-albicans group. Only a small number of patients underwent echocardiography (30%) and ophthalmology reviews (20%). A total of 45 fatal cases were recorded (C. albicans 23). The highest mortality was seen in patients with C. albicans and among them the risk factors were elderly age group > 65 years (17/23), surgical intervention (9/23) and the history of ICU stay (7/23).
CONCLUSION: C. albicans candidemia, >65 years of age and surgical procedure is associated with significant mortality, however, the use of fluconazole has shown the increased survival rate. This study suggests the surveillance of candidemia, and antifungal susceptibility pattern in current practice and the treatment.

PMID: 32869497 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]