2021 Aug 9. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan–.
The most prevalent cause of infectious esophagitis is esophageal candidiasis. Of patients that have infectious esophagitis, 88% are from Candida albicans, 10% are from herpes simplex virus, and 2% are from cytomegalovirus. Patients with esophageal candidiasis may have a wide range of symptoms or may be asymptomatic. The most common symptoms being dysphagia, odynophagia, and retrosternal pain. Candida infections of the esophagus are considered opportunistic infections and are seen most commonly in immunosuppressed patients. Candida can be part of the normal oral flora. When host defense mechanisms are impaired, this allows for a proliferation of candida on the esophageal mucosa forming adherent plaques. Esophageal candidiasis can is treatable with various forms of oral and intravenous antifungal medications.