Establishing Benchmarks for Antimicrobial Use in Canadian Children’s Hospitals: Results From 2 National Point Prevalence Surveys

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2021 Oct 1;40(10):899-905. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000003170.


BACKGROUND: Point prevalence surveys (PPS) are potentially useful to measure antimicrobial use across institutions. The objectives of the study were to describe and compare antimicrobial use between pediatric hospitals in Canada.

METHODS: Fifteen pediatric hospitals all with pediatric infectious diseases service participated in 2 single-day PPS in 2018/19. Children <18 years of age who were inpatients were included. Age, service, clinical diagnosis as well as name, route, and start date for each antimicrobial was collected. Antibiotics were grouped according to the World Health Organization AWaRe classification.

RESULTS: There were 3924 inpatient patients-days representing 2729 children and 1195 infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) surveyed. Among non-NICU patients, 1210 (44.3%) received 1830 antimicrobials of which 73.9% were for empiric or pathogen-directed therapy and 25.6% for prophylaxis. The mean proportion of core Access and Watch group antibiotics was 45.8% and 63.5%, respectively, with no differences in means between tertiary and quaternary care sites. Among 1195 infants in NICU, 19.7% received 410 antimicrobials of which 17.1% were for prophylaxis and a mean of 45.4% were Watch group antibiotics. Of patients admitted for community-acquired pneumonia, 32.7% received penicillin or aminopenicillins only with variability among sites.

CONCLUSIONS: PPS of antimicrobial use in Canadian pediatric hospitals revealed a high proportion of Watch group (broader spectrum) antibiotics, even among children with community-acquired pneumonia. This study demonstrates the feasibility of PPS to document antimicrobial use and potentially to use this data to establish goals for decreasing both overall and Watch group antibiotics.

PMID:34525004 | DOI:10.1097/INF.0000000000003170