Estimation and correlation of serum and salivary glucose and immunoglobulin A levels and salivary candidal carriage in diabetic and non-diabetic patients

J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2020 Fall;14(4):206-213. doi: 10.34172/joddd.2020.041. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

ABSTRACT

Background. A correlation has been noted between diabetes mellitus (DM) and changes in the oral cavity. The present study aimed to estimate, compare, and correlate serum and salivary glucose and IgA levels and salivary candidal carriage in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. Methods. Eighty-eight subjects were categorized into three groups: group 1 (controlled DM; n=27), group 2 (uncontrolled DM; n=32) and group 3 (non-diabetics; n=29). Serum and salivary glucose levels were estimated by glucose oxidase/peroxidase method, serum and salivary IgA by a diagnostic kit, and candidal colonization by inoculating samples into Sabouraud dextrose agar plate. Statistical analyses were carried out by one-way ANOVA, post hoc Tukey tests, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results. Significant elevation of serum IgA levels was observed in group 2 compared to group 3 and significant decreases in salivary IgA levels in groups 1 and 2. The candidal carriage was significantly higher in group 2 compared to group 3. Serum glucose and salivary IgA levels showed a significant correlation in group 1. There was a positive correlation between serum/ salivary glucose and serum/salivary IgA levels in group 2. In addition, there was a significant correlation between serum glucose and serum IgA levels in group 3. Conclusion. Saliva could be a potential, non-invasive diagnostic tool to estimate glucose levels. The evaluation of salivary components, like IgA, might be useful in diagnosing and managing oral manifestations in diabetic individuals. Elevated salivary glucose levels contribute to elevated candidal carriage, making individuals susceptible to oral candidiasis.

PMID:33575008 | PMC:PMC7867688 | DOI:10.34172/joddd.2020.041