Evaluating Empiric Therapy for Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis in the Outpatient Setting: A Retrospective Cohort Study

J Emerg Nurs. 2021 Apr 26:S0099-1767(21)00072-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jen.2021.03.005. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the empiric therapy prescribed for acute uncomplicated cystitis in the outpatient setting (emergency department and ambulatory care clinics) and to characterize uropathogens for discordance between the therapy prescribed and susceptibility.

METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted at an inner-city emergency department and multiple clinics to evaluate the empiric therapy prescribed and the uropathogens isolated from culture for patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis.

RESULTS: A total of 144 urine cultures were included. Among the patients, 53.4% were empirically prescribed cephalexin, 20.1% ciprofloxacin, 11% nitrofurantoin, and 8.3% trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The most common uropathogen was Escherichia coli (72.4%), followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (7.6%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (4.8%). Of the 107 E. coli isolates, 9 were extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing. E. coli antimicrobial susceptibilities were as follows: ceFAZolin (97%), nitrofurantoin (96%), cefTRIAXone (91%), ciprofloxacin (87%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (59%). The concordance rates with the Infectious Diseases Society of America treatment guidelines for acute uncomplicated cystitis and local resistance patterns were as follows: empiric therapy prescribed (70%), dosing of empiric therapy (77%), and duration of empiric therapy (22%). For empiric therapy prescribed and susceptibility mismatch, 5.6% of the isolates were not susceptible to therapy, 76.4% were susceptible to therapy, 14% did not have susceptibilities, and 4.2% did not receive therapy.

CONCLUSIONS: Most of the cases of acute uncomplicated cystitis at the subject institution can be managed safely and effectively with nitrofurantoin or first-generation cephalosporins. Institutions should use national guidelines in conjunction with local resistance and prescribing patterns to improve antibiotic prescribing in the outpatient setting.

PMID:33926725 | DOI:10.1016/j.jen.2021.03.005