Evaluation of current practice of antimicrobial use and clinical outcome of patients with pneumonia at a tertiary care hospital in Ethiopia: A prospective observational study.

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Evaluation of current practice of antimicrobial use and clinical outcome of patients with pneumonia at a tertiary care hospital in Ethiopia: A prospective observational study.

PLoS One. 2020;15(1):e0227736

Authors: Fenta T, Engidawork E, Amogne W, Berha AB

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance, which is commonly observed in the management of pneumonia, is a major threat to public health and is driven by inappropriate antimicrobial use. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the current practice of antimicrobial utilization and clinical outcomes in the management of adult pneumonia at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital.
METHOD: A prospective observational study was conducted in the internal medicine wards of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital. The study was conducted from 1 September 2016 to 30 June 2017 and patients aged ≥ 14 years and diagnosed with pneumonia were included. Chart review and self-administered questionnaire were used to collect data regarding pneumonia diagnosis and management as well as clinical outcomes (stable, complications, and in-hospital mortality). Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regressions were performed for data analyses.
RESULTS: Out of 200 enrolled patients, clinical diagnosis was supported by microbiologic testing and imaging in 75 (37.5%) and 122 (61.0%) cases, respectively. The treatment approach in almost all patients (99.5%) was empirical and no de-escalation therapy was made even after acquiring culture results. The total duration of antimicrobial therapy was 12.05±5.09 days and vancomycin was the most commonly prescribed antimicrobial agent (25%), with 70% of the patients receiving this drug empirically. Nearly, 30% of the patients missed their antimicrobial doses during the course of treatment and stock-out (36.7%) was the major reason. Close to 113 (66%) of the treating physicians used reference books to prescribe antimicrobial agents. Patients' outcomes were found to be stable (66%), in-hospital mortality (18.5%), and ending up in complications (17%). Poor clinical outcome (death and complicated cases) was found to be associated with recent antimicrobial use history (p = 0.007, AOR 2.86(1.33-6.13)), cancer (p = 0.023, AOR 3.46(1.18-10.13)), recent recurrent upper respiratory tract infection (p = 0.046, AOR 3.70(1.02-13.40)), respiratory rate >24 breaths/min or <12 breaths/min (p = 0.013, AOR 2.45(1.21-4.95)) and high level of serum creatinine after initiation of antimicrobial therapy (>1.4mg/dl) (p = 0.032, AOR 2.37(1.07-5.20)).
CONCLUSION: Antimicrobials are empirically prescribed without sufficient evidence of indication and microbiological or radiological findings. The practice also is not based on local guidelines and no multidisciplinary approach is apparent. [How about: "It is likely that these factors contributed to higher rates of mortality (18.5%) when compared with similar studies in other countries" instead of this "As a result, there were higher rates of mortality (18.5%) when compared with other similar studies"]. Hence, the hospital requires a coordinated intervention to improve rational use of antimicrobials and clinical outcomes through establishing an antimicrobial stewardship program.

PMID: 31999752 [PubMed - in process]