PLoS One. 2021 Apr 20;16(4):e0250028. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0250028. eCollection 2021.
Treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), which is usually less successful than that of drug-susceptible TB, represents a challenge for TB control and elimination. We aimed to evaluate treatment outcomes and to identify the factors associated with death among patients with MDR and XDR-TB in Portugal. We assessed MDR-TB cases reported for the period 2000-2016, using the national TB Surveillance System. Treatment outcomes were defined according to WHO recommendations. We identified the factors associated with death using logistic regression. We evaluated treatment outcomes of 294 MDR- and 142 XDR-TB patients. The treatment success rate was 73.8% among MDR- and 62.7% among XDR-TB patients (p = 0.023). The case-fatality rate was 18.4% among MDR- and 23.9% among XDR-TB patients. HIV infection (OR 4.55; 95% CI 2.31-8.99; p < 0.001) and resistance to one or more second-line injectable drugs (OR 2.73; 95% CI 1.26-5.92; p = 0.011) were independently associated with death among MDR-TB patients. HIV infection, injectable drug use, past imprisonment, comorbidities, and alcohol abuse are conditions that were associated with death early on and during treatment. Early diagnosis of MDR-TB and further monitoring of these patients are necessary to improve treatment outcome.