J Chemother. 2021 Mar 6:1-9. doi: 10.1080/1120009X.2021.1892365. Online ahead of print.
The post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of ceftazidime-avibactam in vivo was evaluated using models of thigh- and lung-infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in neutropenic mice. In thigh-infected mice, the PAE was negative (-2.18 to -0.11 h) for three of four strains: caused by a 'burst' of rapid bacterial growth after the drug concentrations had fallen below their pre-specified target values. With lung infection, PAE was positive, and longer for target drug concentrations in ELF (>2 h) than plasma (1.69-1.88 h). The time to the start of regrowth was quantified as a new parameter, PAER, which was positive (0.35-1.00 h) in both thigh- and lung-infected mice. In the context that measurements of the PAE of β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations in vivo have not previously been reported, it is noted that the negative values were consistent with previous measurements of the PAE of ceftazidime-avibactam in vitro and of ceftazidime alone in vivo.