Evolving insights into the epidemiology and control of Clostridium difficile in hospitals.

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Evolving insights into the epidemiology and control of Clostridium difficile in hospitals.

Clin Infect Dis. 2017 May 17;:

Authors: Caroff DA, Yokoe DS, Klompas M

Abstract
Typing studies suggest most cases of hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection are unrelated to other cases of active disease in the hospital. New cases may instead be due to transmissions from asymptomatic carriers or progression of latent C.difficile present-on-admission to active infection. Direct exposure to antibiotics remains the primary risk factor for C.difficile infection but ward-level antibiotic use, antibiotic exposure of the prior room occupant, and C.difficile status of the prior room occupant increase risk for C.difficile acquisition while antibiotic exposure, gastric acid suppression, and immunosuppression increase risk for progression to infection. These insights suggest possible new approaches to prevent C.difficile infections, including screening to identify and isolate carriers, universal gloving, greater use of sporicidal cleaning methods, enhancing antibiotic and possibly proton pump inhibitor stewardship, and prescribing prophylactic vancomycin and/or probiotics to colonized patients to prevent progression from colonization to infection. We review current evidence and questions related to these interventions.

PMID: 28520953 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]