3 Biotech. 2021 Apr;11(4):177. doi: 10.1007/s13205-021-02729-4. Epub 2021 Mar 19.
Antibiotic resistance in the context of treating malarial infections is a major challenge in India. Home remedies such as thulasi leaves (Ocimum tenuiflorum), black pepper seeds (Piper nigrum), clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum verum), and nilavembu whole plant powder (Andrographis paniculata) were taken to explore antimalarial and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity. Among the five extracts, the best two extracts, C. verum and P. nigrum extract, showed the presence of Quercetin. Phytoniosomes were prepared by simple probe sonication with the two extracts and the resultant vesicles were in the size range of (319.7 nm). They showed significant (P < 0.001) antimalarial potency IC50 at 5.25 µg/ml against P. falciparum 3D7. In addition, their cytotoxicity (TC50) against Vero cell line was found to be > 100 µg/ml. The therapeutic index was found to be > 32 µg/ml. Phytoniosomes were converted to a capsule dosage form by lyophilization and this capsule was stable up to 90 days.