Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing bacteria among outpatients with ear infection at FelegeHiwot Referral Hospital, North West Ethiopia.

Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing bacteria among outpatients with ear infection at FelegeHiwot Referral Hospital, North West Ethiopia.

PLoS One. 2020;15(9):e0238891

Authors: Endaylalu K, Abera B, Mulu W

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistant bacteria particularly extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing are of major concern for management of outpatients. They can spread rapidly and are associated with poor patient outcome. However, there is scarcity of information on ear infection with ESBL producing bacteria in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study investigates the prevalence of ear infection with ESBL producing bacteria among outpatients attending Felegehiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.
METHODS: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted from May, 2018 to January, 2019. Demographic and clinical data were collected with face to face interview and were complemented with patient card review. Ear discharge specimens were collected from study participants using swab technique. All ear swab specimens were cultured using standard microbiological techniques. The ESBL producing bacteria were detected by double disc synergy test and interpreted based on Clinical and laboratory Standards Institute Guidelines. Chi-square and fisher's exact tests were calculated to check association between variables.
RESULTS: A total of 236 patients (male = 138 and female = 98) with ear infection took part in the study. The median age of the participants was 20years. Overall, 10 (4.23%, 95%CI; 2.3-7.6%) of patients had ear infection with ESBL producing bacteria. Other chronic illnesses (p = 0.003), history of hospital visit and treatment (p = 0.006) and history of antibiotic use without physician's prescription (p<0.001) had significant association with prevalence of ESBL producing bacteria in ear infection. The proportion of ear infection with ESBL producing P.mirabilis, P.aeruginosa and K.pneumoniae were 4 (1.7%), 3 (1.3%) and 2 (0.8%), respectively. All ESBL producing isolates were MDR (100%). Overall, 58 (43%) species were MDR. P.aeruginosa was the leading MDR isolate 29 (53.7%).For all bacterial isolates of ear infection, ampicillin(93.3%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (58.5%) revealed high level of resistance whereas low resistance rates were observed for ciprofloxacin (5.2%), third generation cephalosporin (11.9-20%) and aztreonam (16.3%).
CONCLUSIONS: Ear infection due to ESBL producing bacteria coupled with high levels of MDR is becoming a growing concern for outpatients in the study area. Regular detection of these bacteria and wise use of antibiotics are needed to stop the spread of this form of resistance.

PMID: 32915859 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]