Emerg Microbes Infect. 2021 Oct 8:1-58. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2021.1991239. Online ahead of print.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from bacteria are enclosed particles carrying biological active molecules. They have been shown to play a role in bacterial communications and delivery of virulence factors to the host cells. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen causing a variety of infections ranging from impetigo to septicemia. The EVs released from S. aureus have high potential to be used for vaccine development against S. aureus infections. However, it is important to clearly understand the impact of SaEVs on the host's immune response. Our study demonstrated that purified EVs from a clinical isolated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (SaEVs) significantly stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production in mouse immune cells and induced host cell death. An impairment of cytokine production in the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-silenced macrophages suggested that SaEVs stimulate proinflammatory response via TLRs 2, 4 and 9. In mouse infection model, the results demonstrated that SaEV immunization did not provide protective effect. In contrast, all SaEV-immunized mice died within Day 1 after methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection. After MRSA infection for 3 h, the production of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-17 in the spleen of SaEV-immunized mice was significantly higher than that of control mice. On Day 5 after second immunization, total IgE in the serum was significantly enhanced, and a high titer of Th2-related cytokines was remarkably induced after ex vivo stimulation of the spleen cells with SaEVs. These results suggested that MRSA-derived EVs act as an immunostimulant that induces inflammatory response and IgE-mediated hypersensitivity after MRSA infection.