Factors associated with antimicrobial choice for surgical prophylaxis in Australia

JAC Antimicrob Resist. 2020 Jul 18;2(3):dlaa036. doi: 10.1093/jacamr/dlaa036. eCollection 2020 Sep.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cefazolin is the most commonly recommended antimicrobial for surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP). However, the Australian Surgical National Antimicrobial Prescribing Survey revealed a wide range of antimicrobials prescribed for SAP. Inappropriate use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials is associated with increased patient harm and is a posited driver for antimicrobial resistance.

OBJECTIVES: To describe patient, hospital and surgical factors that are associated with appropriateness of the top five prescribed antimicrobials/antimicrobial classes for procedural SAP.

METHODS: All procedures audited from 18 April 2016 to 15 April 2019 in the Surgical National Antimicrobial Prescribing Survey were included in the analysis. Estimated marginal means analyses accounted for a range of variables and calculated a rate of adjusted appropriateness (AA). Subanalyses of the top five audited antimicrobials/antimicrobial classes identified associations between variables and appropriateness.

RESULTS: A total of 12 419 surgical episodes with 14 150 prescribed initial procedural doses were included for analysis. When procedural SAP was prescribed, appropriateness was low (57.7%). Allergy status, surgical procedure group and the presence of prosthetic material were positively associated with cefazolin and aminoglycoside appropriateness (P < 0.05). There were no significant positive associations with glycopeptides and third/fourth-generation cephalosporins. The use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials was the most common reason for inappropriate choice (67.9% of metronidazole to 83.3% of third/fourth-generation cephalosporin prescriptions).

CONCLUSIONS: Various factors influence appropriateness of procedural SAP choice. Identification of these factors provides targets for antimicrobial stewardship interventions, e.g. procedures where surgeons are regularly prescribing broad-spectrum SAP. These can be tailored to address local hospital prescribing practices.

PMID:34223002 | PMC:PMC8210066 | DOI:10.1093/jacamr/dlaa036