Monatsschr Kinderheilkd. 2021 Mar 15:1-7. doi: 10.1007/s00112-021-01146-4. Online ahead of print.
Febrile neutropenia is the most common potential emergency situation in children and adolescents with cancer. The host response of these patients is severely compromised by treatment-induced immunosuppression resulting in a lack of important defence mechanisms, so that bacterial infections and in certain risk groups also fungal infections can be life threatening. As the clinical course of these infectious complications may be rapid and fatal, early antibiotic treatment can save lives. This article aims to raise awareness to this emergency situation and gives an overview of the management of pediatric cancer patients with febrile neutropenia.