Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mechanisms in Shigella Isolates in Shanghai, China Between 2010 and 2015.
Microb Drug Resist. 2018 Oct 10;:
Authors: Zhang WX, Chen HY, Tu LH, Xi MF, Chen M, Zhang J
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella isolated in Shanghai, China and to determine the genetic basis of its resistance to fluoroquinolones.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 402 strains of Shigella, including 145 Shigella flexneri and 257 Shigella sonnei isolates, were analyzed. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of the strains to 13 antimicrobials. Minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin was determined by E-test. Mutations within the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA and parC and in the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes, including qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, and aac (6')-Ib-cr, were detected by polymerase chain reaction. All the products were then sequenced.
RESULTS: Most of the Shigella isolates were found to be resistant to nalidixic acid (96.4%), streptomycin (96.4%), ampicillin (86.2%), tetracycline (79.8%), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (80.6%). S. flexneri isolates showed a significantly higher resistance to cefepime (33.6%), ciprofloxacin (54.2%), norfloxacin (34.1%), and levofloxacin (12.1%) compared with that observed for the S. sonnei strains (χ2 analysis, p < 0.05). Three mutations (Ser83, Asp87, and His211) in gyrA and one mutation (Ser80) in parC were detected. Of 257 S. sonnei isolates, 11.7% possessed gyrA mutations and 2% had parC mutations. Of 145 S. flexneri isolates, 98.6% possessed gyrA mutations and 97.9% had parC mutations. The plasmid-mediated resistance genes of qnrS and aac (6')-Ib-cr were detected among 17 strains (4.2%).
CONCLUSIONS: The mutation percentage within the QRDR of S. flexneri was as high as 98.6 in gyrA and 97.9 in parC. The significant abundance of mutations within QRDRs conferred high levels of fluoroquinolone resistance. Moreover, the PMQR genes, particularly qnrS, played an important role in the decreased susceptibility of Shigella to fluoroquinolones.
PMID: 30307807 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]