- [Investigation of blaOXA-48-like genes in carbapenemase producing Klebsiella spp. isolates].
[Investigation of blaOXA-48-like genes in carbapenemase producing Klebsiella spp. isolates].
Mikrobiyol Bul. 2019 Apr;53(2):134-143
Authors: Kahraman EP, Toptan H, Otlu B, Köroğlu M, Altındiş M
The emergence and spread of multi-drug-resistant (MDR), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing carbapenem-resistant members of Enterobacteriaceae family has become a worldwide health problem. Carbapenem resistance caused by blaKPC, blaNDM gene regions are sporadic and blaOXA-48 gene region is endemic in our country. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of blaOXA-232, blaOXA-181, blaOXA-162, blaOXA-204, blaOXA-244, blaOXA-163, blaOXA-245 genes in OXA-48 like carbapenemase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. The isolates used in this study were provided from the Medical Microbiology Laboratory collection of Sakarya University Sakarya Training and Research Hospital. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility tests were determined by the VITEK 2® automated system (biomerieux, France) and the carbapenemase production of isolates was determined by the modified Hodge test. Minimal inhibitor concentration (MIC) values were determined with broth microdilution method. The isolates containing the blaOXA-48-like gene region were identified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) method using consensus primers. In "High Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA)" method carried out by using "Type-it HRM PCR" (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) kit, isolates which showed a deviation in melting temperatures (Tm) were selected with the suspicion of OXA-48 variant. The sequence analysis (ABI 3500, Applied Biosystems, USA) was carried out to determine which variants were present in these isolates. Compatibility of MIC values was determined between VITEK 2® and the microdilution method with the rate of 82% for imipenem, 77% for meropenem and 90% for ertapenem in carbapenemase-producing K.pneumoniae isolates. In 45 of 100 K.pneumoniae isolates, the blaOXA-48-like gene region was found to be positive by the Rt-PCR method. For the determination of OXA-48 variants, these 45 isolates were evaluated by HRMA method. The sequence analysis revealed that 41 (91.2%) isolates contained blaOXA-48/blaOXA-245 gene regions, while 2 (4.4%) isolates were found to contain blaOXA-181 gene regions and 2 (4.4%) isolates were found to contain blaOXA-244 gene regions. This is the first study to determine OXA-48 and OXA-244 positivity in blaOXA-48-like gene regions in Turkey. As a result of this study, the OXA-48-like gene region was found to be 45%, of which 4.4% had blaOXA-181 and 4.4% had blaOXA-244 gene regions. The detection of blaOXA-48-like gene regions will guide for the selection of antibiotics in critical patient groups.
PMID: 31130118 [PubMed - in process]
- Ertapenem for osteoarticular infections in obese patients: a pharmacokinetic study of plasma and bone concentrations.
Ertapenem for osteoarticular infections in obese patients: a pharmacokinetic study of plasma and bone concentrations.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Dec 04;:
Authors: Chambers J, Page-Sharp M, Salman S, Dyer J, Davis TME, Batty KT, Manning L
PURPOSE: Ertapenem is used off-label to treat osteoarticular infections but there are few pharmacokinetic (PK) data to guide optimal dosing strategies in patients who may be obese with multiple co-morbidities including diabetes and peripheral vascular disease.
METHODS: Participants undergoing lower limb amputation or elective joint arthroplasty received a dose of intravenous ertapenem prior to surgery. Eight plasma samples were collected over 24 h, together with at least one bone sample per patient. Ertapenem concentrations in plasma and bone were measured using liquid-chromatography/mass-spectroscopy and analysed using non-linear mixed effects PK modelling.
RESULTS: Plasma and bone concentrations were obtained from 10 participants. The final population PK model showed that a fat free body mass was the most appropriate body size adjustment. Ertapenem diffused rapidly into bone but concentrations throughout the 24 h dosing period were on average 40-fold higher in plasma, corresponding to a bone to plasma ratio of 0.025, and highly variable between individuals. Simulations demonstrated a high probability of target attainment (PTA) for free plasma concentrations when the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were ≤ 0.25 mg/L. By contrast, at MICs of 0.5 mg/L and ≥ 1 mg/L, the fractions of patients attaining this target was ~ 80% and 40%, respectively. In bone, the PTA was ≤ 45% when the MIC was ≥ 0.25 mg/L.
CONCLUSION: Local bone and free plasma concentrations appear adequate for osteoarticular infections where Enterobacteriaceae are the main causative pathogens, but for Staphylococcus aureus and other bacteria, conventional dosing may lead to inadequate PTA.
PMID: 30511329 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]