- Rhesus Theta Defensin 1 Promotes Long Term Survival in Systemic Candidiasis by Host Directed Mechanisms.
Rhesus Theta Defensin 1 Promotes Long Term Survival in Systemic Candidiasis by Host Directed Mechanisms.
Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 15;9(1):16905
Authors: Basso V, Tran DQ, Schaal JB, Tran P, Eriguchi Y, Ngole D, Cabebe AE, Park AY, Beringer PM, Ouellette AJ, Selsted ME
Invasive candidiasis is an increasingly frequent cause of serious and often fatal infections in hospitalized and immunosuppressed patients. Mortality rates associated with these infections have risen sharply due to the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of C. albicans and other Candida spp., highlighting the urgent need of new antifungal therapies. Rhesus theta (θ) defensin-1 (RTD-1), a natural macrocyclic antimicrobial peptide, was recently shown to be rapidly fungicidal against clinical isolates of MDR C. albicans in vitro. Here we found that RTD-1 was rapidly fungicidal against blastospores of fluconazole/caspofungin resistant C. albicans strains, and was active against established C. albicans biofilms in vitro. In vivo, systemic administration of RTD-1, initiated at the time of infection or 24 h post-infection, promoted long term survival in candidemic mice whether infected with drug-sensitive or MDR strains of C. albicans. RTD-1 induced an early (4 h post treatment) increase in neutrophils in naive and infected mice. In vivo efficacy was associated with fungal clearance, restoration of dysregulated inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17, and homeostatic reduction in numbers of circulating neutrophils and monocytes. Because these effects occurred using peptide doses that produced maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax) of less than 1% of RTD-1 levels required for in vitro antifungal activity in 50% mouse serum, while inducing a transient neutrophilia, we suggest that RTD-1 mediates its antifungal effects in vivo by host directed mechanisms rather than direct fungicidal activity. Results of this study suggest that θ-defensins represent a new class of host-directed compounds for treatment of disseminated candidiasis.
PMID: 31729441 [PubMed - in process]
- Acute exacerbations of fibrosing interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue diseases: a population-based study.
Acute exacerbations of fibrosing interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue diseases: a population-based study.
BMC Pulm Med. 2019 Nov 14;19(1):215
Authors: Cao M, Sheng J, Qiu X, Wang D, Wang D, Wang Y, Xiao Y, Cai H
BACKGROUND: Acute exacerbation (AE) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). AEs also occur in other forms of fibrosing interstitial lung disease (fILD). The clinical features and prognosis of AE patients with connective tissue diseases (CTDs) associated-ILD has not been fully described.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 177 patients with either IPF or a characterized CTD-ILD admitted to Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital with an AE from January 2010 to December 2016.
RESULTS: The study cohort included 107 subjects with AE-IPF and 70 cases with AE-CTD-ILD. Female gender, prior use of corticosteroid and immunosupressants, lower serum albumin, higher D-dimer level, TLC% pred, survival, and treatment with immunosupressants and caspofungin were more common in the CTD-ILD group (all p<0.05). The incidences of AE-CTD-ILD and AE-IPF were similar in our single center (p = 0.526). TLC% pred was the risk factor for AE after ILD diagnosis for 1 year in CTD patients (p = 0.018). Log-rank tests showed patients with CTD-ILD had a significantly lower mortality rate compared with IPF patients after AEs (p = 0.029). No significant difference in survival was noted among CTD subgroups (p = 0.353). The survival was negatively correlated with WBC count, LDH and CT score, (p = 0.006, p = 0.013 and p = 0.035, respectively), and positively correlated with PaO2/FiO2 ratio (p<0.001) in the CTD-ILD group. WBC count and PO2/FiO2 ratio were the independent predictors for survival in AE-CTD-ILD after adjusting for other clinical variates in Cox regression Models (p = 0.038 and p < 0.001, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: The clinical characteristics of patients with AE-CTD-ILD differed from those with AE-IPF, while AE incidences were similar between the two groups. Subjects with AE-CTD-fILD tended to have a better prognosis, and WBC count and PO2/FiO2 ratio were the independent survival predictors for these patients.
PMID: 31727051 [PubMed - in process]