- Caspofungin PK in critically ill patients after the first and fourth doses: suggestions for therapeutic drug monitoring?
Caspofungin PK in critically ill patients after the first and fourth doses: suggestions for therapeutic drug monitoring?
J Chemother. 2020 Mar 23;:1-8
Authors: Adembri C, Villa G, Rosi E, Tofani L, Fallani S, De Gaudio AR, Novelli A
We describe caspofungin pharmacokinetics (PK) after the first and fourth doses in 20 critically ill septic patients. Monte Carlo simulation was used to analyze the probability of target attainment (PTA) (AUC/MIC > 865) for Candida spp. Caspofungin concentrations were analyzed by HPLC in plasma and urine. A great variability in PK parameters was observed after both doses. Patients were divided in two groups according to their AUC values (AUC ≤ 75 mg h/L cut-off). In the low-AUC group Cmax, Cmin and AUC were lower, while Vd and Cl were higher than in the high-AUC group (p < 0.05, both at day 1 and 4). The mean 24-h urinary recovery of the drug was 8 ± 6.3% (day1) and 9.8 ± 6.3 (day4). Monte Carlo simulation analysis (0.03-1 mg/L MIC-range) showed that PTA was guaranteed only for MICs ≤ 0.03 mg/L in the low-AUC group, and for MICs ≤ 0.06 mg/L in the high-AUC group. No group had a PTA ≥ 90% for 0.125 mg/L MIC (the epidemiological cut-off). Mortality was higher in low-AUC group (p < 0.01). In our 'real-world' population, no clinical data can predict which patient will have lower, suboptimal caspofungin exposure, therefore we suggest TDM to optimize caspofungin therapy and reduce the risk of selecting resistances (CEAVC, 32366/2015; OSS.15.114, NCT03798600).
PMID: 32202224 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
- Extrapolating Antifungal Animal Data to Humans - Is it reliable?
Extrapolating Antifungal Animal Data to Humans - Is it reliable?
Curr Fungal Infect Rep. 2020 Mar;14(1):50-62
Authors: Stevens VM, Mueller SW, Reynolds PM, MacLaren R, Kiser TH
Purpose of Review: This article aimed to review animal models of antifungals and identifies human literature to assess if the extrapolation of results is reliable.
Recent Findings: Animal studies have helped identify AUC/MIC targets for new drugs and formulations such as isavuconazole and delayed release posaconazole that have translated to successful outcomes in humans. Models have also been influential in the identification of possible combination therapies for the treatment of aspergillosis, such as voriconazole and echinocandins. However, challenges are endured with animal models when it comes to replicating the pharmacokinetics of humans which has been exemplified with the newest itraconazole formulation. Additionally, animal models have displayed a survival benefit with the use of iron chelators and amphotericin for mucormycosis which was not demonstrated in humans.
Summary: Animal models have been a staple in the development and optimization of antifungal agents. They afford the ability to investigate uncommon diseases, such as invasive fungal infections, that would otherwise take years and many resources to complete. Although there are many benefits of animal models there are also shortcomings. This is why the reliability of extrapolating data from animal models to humans is often scrutinized.
PMID: 32201545 [PubMed]