• Inherited CARD9 Deficiency in a Patient with Both Exophiala spinifera and Aspergillus nomius Severe Infections.
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    Inherited CARD9 Deficiency in a Patient with Both Exophiala spinifera and Aspergillus nomius Severe Infections.

    J Clin Immunol. 2020 Jan 15;:

    Authors: Perez L, Messina F, Negroni R, Arechavala A, Bustamante J, Oleastro M, Migaud M, Casanova JL, Puel A, Santiso G

    PURPOSE: Caspase-associated recruitment domain-9 (CARD9) deficiency is an inborn error of immunity that typically predisposes otherwise healthy patients to single fungal infections and the occurrence of multiple invasive fungal infections is rare. It has been described as the first known condition that predisposes to extrapulmonary Aspergillus infection with preserved lungs. We present a patient that expands the clinical variability of CARD9 deficiency.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genetic analysis was performed by Sanger sequencing. Neutrophils and mononuclear phagocyte response to fungal stimulation were evaluated through luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence and whole blood production of the proinflammatory mediator interleukin (IL)-6, respectively.
    RESULTS: We report a 56-year-old Argentinean woman, whose invasive Exophiala spinifera infection at the age of 32 years was unexplained and reported in year 2004. At the age of 49 years, she presented with chronic pulmonary disease due to Aspergillus nomius. After partial improvement following treatment with caspofungin and posaconazole, right pulmonary bilobectomy was performed. Despite administration of multiple courses of antifungals, sustained clinical remission could not be achieved. We recently found that the patient's blood showed an impaired production of IL-6 when stimulated with zymosan. We also found that she is homozygous for a previously reported CARD9 loss-of-function mutation (Q289*).
    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a patient with inherited CARD9 deficiency and chronic invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) due to A. nomius. Inherited CARD9 deficiency should be considered in otherwise healthy children and adults with one or more invasive fungal diseases.

    PMID: 31940125 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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  • Breakthrough Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
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    Breakthrough Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Mycopathologia. 2020 Jan 14;:

    Authors: Wasylyshyn A, Linder KA, Castillo CG, Zhou S, Kauffman CA, Miceli MH

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the occurrence, risk factors, effect of antifungal prophylaxis, and outcomes of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
    PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of all adult patients admitted to the University of Michigan Health System for AML over a 3-year period from 2010 to 2013. We determined comorbidities, hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) status, antifungal prophylaxis, proven and probable IFI, and outcomes at 12 weeks after initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy.
    RESULTS: Of 333 patients in our cohort, 116 of whom had received a HCT, 98 (29%) developed an IFI. Of the 30 (9%) patients who had a proven or probable IFI, 18 had breakthrough infection while on micafungin (n = 5), voriconazole (n = 4), posaconazole (n = 5), or fluconazole (n = 4). Breakthrough IFIs were due to Aspergillus species (n = 11), other molds (n = 4), and Candida species (n = 3). Factors associated with breakthrough IFI were prolonged severe neutropenia (p = .05) and having received tacrolimus (p = .04). Antifungal therapy was successful in 7 of the 18 (39%) patients with breakthrough IFI and 8 of the 12 (67%) patients with non-breakthrough IFI, p = .13. Mortality at 12 weeks was 27%, 5 with breakthrough IFI and 3 with non-breakthrough IFI and was associated with prolonged severe neutropenia, p = .04.
    CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AML remain at risk for IFI despite the use of several different antifungal agents for prophylaxis. Mortality remains high in patients with AML who develop IFI.

    PMID: 31939052 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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