- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Solid Organ Transplantation - Guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Solid Organ Transplantation - Guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice.
Clin Transplant. 2019 May 23;:e13611
Authors: Pereira MR, Rana MM, AST ID Community of Practice
These updated guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice review the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention and management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in solid organ transplantation. Despite an increasing armamentarium of antimicrobials active against MRSA, improved diagnostic tools, and overall declining rates of infection, MRSA infections remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. Pre- and post-transplant MRSA colonization is a significant risk factor for post-transplant MRSA infection. The preferred initial treatment of MRSA bacteremia remains vancomycin. Hand hygiene, chlorhexidine bathing in the ICU, central line bundles that focus on reducing unnecessary catheter use, disinfection of patient equipment and the environment along with antimicrobial stewardship are all aspects of an infection prevention approach to prevent MRSA transmission and decrease healthcare-associated infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 31120612 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
- Usage patterns of carbapenem antimicrobials in dogs and cats at a veterinary tertiary care hospital.
Usage patterns of carbapenem antimicrobials in dogs and cats at a veterinary tertiary care hospital.
J Vet Intern Med. 2019 May 22;:
Authors: Smith A, Wayne AS, Fellman CL, Rosenbaum MH
BACKGROUND: Carbapenems are a class of antimicrobials reserved for resistant infections or systemically ill people, yet the extent and context in which they are prescribed in the small animals is understudied.
HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE: To describe cases in dogs and cats treated with carbapenems to establish baseline data regarding the types of infections, outcomes, and resistance profiles of target infections. We hypothesize that prescribing practices for carbapenems at a veterinary tertiary care hospital would not comply with the recommended use guidelines in human medicine.
METHODS: Retrospective study of veterinary medical records from all dogs and cats prescribed carbapenems between May 1, 2016, and April 30, 2017.
RESULTS: A total of 81 infections (71 in dogs and 10 in cats) representing 68 animals (58 dogs and 10 cats) involving carbapenem use were identified. Cultures were performed in 65/81 (80%) infections, and antimicrobial use was de-escalated or discontinued in 10/81 (12%) infections. The average duration of treatment was 27.5 days and ranged from 1 to 196 days. Resistance to more than 3 antimicrobial classes was present in 57/115 (50%) isolates. Resistance to carbapenems was found in 2/64 (3%) of the bacterial isolates with reported carbapenem susceptibility.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The majority of carbapenem use at a veterinary tertiary care hospital was prescribed in conjunction with culture and sensitivity determination, with de-escalation performed in a minority of cases, and treatment durations longer than typically recommended in human medicine.
PMID: 31119803 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
- Antimicrobial Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Treatment of Gonorrhea.
Antimicrobial Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Treatment of Gonorrhea.
Methods Mol Biol. 2019;1997:37-58
Authors: Unemo M, Golparian D, Eyre DW
Gonorrhea and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae are major public health concerns globally. Dual antimicrobial therapy (mainly ceftriaxone 250-500 mg × 1 plus azithromycin 1-2 g × 1) is currently recommended in many countries. These dual therapies have high cure rates, have likely been involved in decreasing the level of cephalosporin resistance internationally, and inhibit the spread of AMR gonococcal strains. However, ceftriaxone-resistant strains are currently spreading internationally, predominately associated with travel to Asia. Furthermore, the first global treatment failure with recommended dual therapy was reported in 2016 and the first isolates with combined ceftriaxone resistance and high-level azithromycin resistance were reported in 2018 in the UK and Australia. New antimicrobials for treatment of gonorrhea are essential and, of the few antimicrobials in clinical development, zoliflodacin particularly appears promising. Holistic actions are imperative. These include an enhanced advocacy; prevention, early diagnosis, contact tracing, treatment, test-of-cure, and additional measures for effective management of anogenital and pharyngeal gonorrhea; antimicrobial stewardship; surveillance of infection, AMR and treatment failures; and intensified research, for example, regarding rapid molecular point-of-care detection of gonococci and AMR, novel AMR determinants, new antimicrobials, and an effective gonococcal vaccine, which is the only sustainable solution for management and control of gonorrhea.
PMID: 31119616 [PubMed - in process]
- Novel Strategies for the Management of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcal Infections.
Novel Strategies for the Management of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcal Infections.
Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2019 May 22;21(7):22
Authors: Contreras GA, Munita JM, Arias CA
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are important nosocomial pathogens that commonly affect critically ill patients. VRE have a remarkable genetic plasticity allowing them to acquire genes associated with antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, the treatment of deep-seated infections due to VRE has become a challenge for the clinician. The purpose of this review is to assess the current and future strategies for the management of recalcitrant deep-seated VRE infections and efforts for infection control in the hospital setting.
RECENT FINDINGS: Preventing colonization and decolonization of multidrug-resistant bacteria are becoming the most promising novel strategies to control and eradicate VRE from the hospital environment. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has shown remarkable results on treating colonization and infection due to Clostridiodes difficille and VRE, as well as to recover the integrity of the gut microbiota under antibiotic pressure. Initial reports have shown the efficacy of FMT on reestablishing patient microbiota diversity in the gut and reducing the dominance of VRE in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the use of bacteriophages may be a promising strategy in eradicating VRE from the gut of patients. Until these strategies become widely available in the hospital setting, the implementation of infection control measures and stewardship programs are paramount for the control of this pathogen and each program should provide recommendations for the proper use of antibiotics and develop strategies that help to detect populations at risk of VRE colonization, prevent and control nosocomial transmission of VRE, and develop educational programs for all healthcare workers addressing the epidemiology of VRE and the potential impact of these pathogens on the cost and outcomes of patients. In terms of antibiotic strategies, daptomycin has become the standard of care for the management of deep-seated infections due to VRE. However, recent evidence indicates that the efficacy of this antibiotic is limited, and higher (10-12 mg/kg) doses and/or combination with β-lactams is needed for therapeutic success. Clinical data to support the best use of daptomycin against VRE are urgently needed. This review provides an overview of recent developments regarding the prevention, treatment, control, and eradication of VRE in the hospital setting. We aim to provide an update of the most recent therapeutic strategies to treat deep-seated infections due to VRE.
PMID: 31119397 [PubMed]
- Association of Adverse Drug Events with Broad-spectrum Antibiotic Use in Hospitalized Patients: A Single-center Study.
Association of Adverse Drug Events with Broad-spectrum Antibiotic Use in Hospitalized Patients: A Single-center Study.
Intern Med. 2019 May 22;:
Authors: Hagiya H, Kokado R, Ueda A, Okuno H, Morii D, Hamaguchi S, Yamamoto N, Yoshida H, Tomono K
Objective The importance of antimicrobial stewardship is increasingly highlighted in this age of antimicrobial resistance. A better comprehension of adverse drug events (ADEs) can promote the appropriate use of antibiotics. We aimed to quantify the incidence of ADEs associated with broad-spectrum systemic antibiotics in a hospital setting. Methods We conducted a six-month prospective, observational study at Osaka University Hospital to describe the incidence of ADEs in patients hospitalized in general wards undergoing treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics (carbapenems, piperacillin/tazobactam [PIPC/TAZ], and anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus agents). The occurrence of ADE was defined as any cardiac, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, renal, neurologic, hematologic, dermatologic, or musculoskeletal manifestation after 48 hours or more of systemic antibiotic therapy. Results The 3 most frequently prescribed antibiotics were PIPC/TAZ (242 cases), meropenem (181 cases), and vancomycin (92 cases). Of 689 patients, 118 (17.1%) experienced ADEs, including gastrointestinal (6.4%), hepatobiliary (4.2%), dermatologic (2.5%), and renal (2.3%) manifestations. Patients treated with PIPC/TAZ, meropenem, doripenem, vancomycin, daptomycin, and teicoplanin developed ADEs at rates of 20.7%, 16.0%, 15.4%, 19.6%, 11.8%, and 10.9%, respectively. Conclusion Our study provides a quantitative value for the incidence of ADEs associated with broad-spectrum antibiotics in clinical practice. To optimize patient safety, clinicians need to be aware of the risks associated with antibiotic administration.
PMID: 31118388 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
- Clinical challenges in antimicrobial resistance.
Clinical challenges in antimicrobial resistance.
Nat Microbiol. 2018 Mar;3(3):258-260
Authors: Barlow G
PMID: 29463922 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]