- National Trends in Antibiotic Use in Australian Residential Aged Care Facilities, 2005-2016.
National Trends in Antibiotic Use in Australian Residential Aged Care Facilities, 2005-2016.
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 May 27;:
Authors: Sluggett JK, Moldovan M, Lynn DJ, Papanicolas LE, Crotty M, Whitehead C, Wesselingh SL, Rogers GB, Inacio MC
BACKGROUND: Understanding current patterns of antibiotic use in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) is essential to inform stewardship activities, but limited utilization data exist. This study examined changes in prevalence and consumption of antibiotics in Australian RACFs between 2005-2006 and 2015-2016.
METHODS: This population-based, repeated cross-sectional analysis included all long-term permanent residents of Australian RACFs between July 2005 and June 2016 who were aged ≥ 65 years. The yearly prevalence rate of antibiotic use and number of defined daily doses (DDDs) of systemic antibiotics per 1000 resident-days were determined annually from linked pharmaceutical claims data. Trends were assessed using ordinary least squares regression.
RESULTS: This study included 502 752 residents from 3218 RACFs, with 424.9 million resident-days analyzed. Antibiotics were dispensed on 5 608 126 occasions during the study period, of which 88% were for oral use. Cefalexin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and trimethoprim were the most commonly dispensed antibiotics. The annual prevalence of antibiotic use increased from 63.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 63.3%-64.4%) to 70.3% (95% CI, 69.9%-70.7%) between 2005-2006 and 2015-2016 (0.8% average annual increase, P < .001). There was a 39% relative increase in total consumption of systemic antibiotics, with utilization increasing from 67.6 to 93.8 DDDs/1000 resident-days during the study period (average annual increase of 2.8 DDDs/1000 resident-days, P < .001).
CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide study showed substantial increases in both prevalence of use and total consumption of antibiotics in Australian RACFs between 2005 and 2016. The increasingly widespread use of antibiotics in Australian RACFs is concerning and points to a need for enhanced efforts to optimize antibiotic use in this setting.
PMID: 32460321 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
- The development and implementation of stewardship initiatives to optimize the prevention and treatment of cytomegalovirus infection in solid-organ transplant recipients.
The development and implementation of stewardship initiatives to optimize the prevention and treatment of cytomegalovirus infection in solid-organ transplant recipients.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2020 May 27;:1-7
Authors: Jorgenson MR, Descourouez JL, Schulz LT, Goldrosen KA, Rice JP, Redfield RR, Saddler CM, Smith JA, Mandelbrot DA
Classical stewardship efforts have targeted immunocompetent patients; however, appropriate use of antimicrobials in the immunocompromised host has become a target of interest. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most common and significant complications after solid-organ transplant (SOT). The treatment of CMV requires a dual approach of antiviral drug therapy and reduction of immunosuppression for optimal outcomes. This dual approach to CMV management increases complexity and requires individualization of therapy to balance antiviral efficacy with the risk of allograft rejection. In this review, we focus on the development and implementation of CMV stewardship initiatives, as a component of antimicrobial stewardship in the immunocompromised host, to optimize the management of prevention and treatment of CMV in SOT recipients. These initiatives have the potential not only to improve judicious use of antivirals and prevent resistance but also to improve patient and graft survival given the interconnection between CMV infection and allograft function.
PMID: 32456718 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
- Role of Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor (HPV) for the Disinfection of Hospital Surfaces Contaminated by Multiresistant Bacteria.
Role of Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor (HPV) for the Disinfection of Hospital Surfaces Contaminated by Multiresistant Bacteria.
Pathogens. 2020 May 24;9(5):
Authors: Totaro M, Casini B, Profeti S, Tuvo B, Privitera G, Baggiani A
The emergence of multiresistant bacterial strains as agents of healthcare-related infection in hospitals has prompted a review of the control techniques, with an added emphasis on preventive measures, namely good clinical practices, antimicrobial stewardship, and appropriate environmental cleaning. The latter item is about the choice of an appropriate disinfectant as a critical role due to the difficulties often encountered in obtaining a complete eradication of environmental contaminations and reservoirs of pathogens. The present review is focused on the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide vapor, among the new environmental disinfectants that have been adopted. The method is based on a critical review of the available literature on this topic.
PMID: 32456303 [PubMed]