Med Arch. 2020 Aug;74(4):285-288. doi: 10.5455/medarh.2020.74.285-288.
INTRODUCTION: Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as nosocomial pneumonia in patients who have mechanical ventilation (MV) for more than 48 hours. The diagnosis of VAP is based on radiological-microbiological examinations. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Health Care Network (NHSN) have an incidence of VAP of 5.8% per 1,000 days on mechanical ventilator.
AIM: In this study, we had an aim to determine the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients with MV who were hospitalized in the intensive care unit.
METHOD: The study was retrospective, clinical, conducted in the period from January 1, 2016 until December 31, 2016. In a one-year period, 719 patients of both sex, aged 14 to 91, were hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Clinic for Anesthesia and Resuscitation of the University Clinical Center in Sarajevo. The study included 250 patients of both sex who had respiratory support with mechanical ventilator. No patient was excluded from the study. As a confirmation of VAP, we used microbiological reports from the patient history documentation. The results were presented statistically through tables and graphs, numerically, by a percentage, and by a mean value with standard deviation.
RESULTS: Out of the 719 hospitalized patients, 250 or 34.8% underwent controlled ventilation. In 103 or 41.2% of patients some form of pneumonia was confirmed microbiologically. An average patient age on controlled ventilation was 60.4 ± 16.8 years. The mean age of a female patients who were on controlled ventilation was 63.2 ± 16.7, higher than that of male patients, which was 57.8 ± 16.6 years. The most frequent patients were over 60 years of age (52.8%). The shortest hospitalization of patients on controlled mechanical ventilation was 1 day and the longest was 120 days. Average duration of mechanical ventilation was 6.9 ± 10.5 days.
CONCLUSION: VAP is a relatively common complication in patients with MV that can increase morbidity and mortality, as well as treatment costs. It is more frequent in females and in the elderly. Medical staff should provide normal maintenance of respiratory functions to a patient who is on MV, which will reduce the risk of VAP.