From the Urinary Catheter to the Prevalence of Three Classes of Integrons, <em>β</em>-Lactamase Genes, and Differences in Antimicrobial Susceptibility of <em>Proteus mirabilis</em> and Clonal Relatedness with Rep-PCR

Biomed Res Int. 2021 Jun 10;2021:9952769. doi: 10.1155/2021/9952769. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Proteus mirabilis is a biofilm-forming agent that quickly settles on the urinary catheters and causing catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Thus, the spread of multidrug-resistant P. mirabilis isolates, with the ability to form a biofilm that carries integron, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), and plasmid-mediated colistin resistance genes (mcr), represents a severe threat to managing nosocomial infectious diseases. This study is aimed at surveying the prevalence of ESBL, integrase, and mcr genes of P. mirabilis, isolated from the catheter, to assess the differences in their antimicrobial susceptibility and clonal dissemination.

METHOD: Microtiter plate assay was adopted to measure biofilm formation. The antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by the disk diffusion method. Antimicrobial resistance genes (intI1, intI2, intI3, bla TEM, bla CTX-M, bla SHV, mcr1, and mcr2) were detected by PCR. All of the isolates were characterized by repetitive sequence-based PCR.

RESULT: From 385 collected catheters in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), 40 P. mirabilis were isolated. All of the isolates could form a biofilm. Proteus spp. had intrinsic resistance to tetracycline (95%) and nitrofurantoin (92.5%), which explains the high resistance prevalence. The most widely resistant antibiotic was trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (75%). Thirty-three (82.5%) isolates were classified as multidrug resistance (MDR). The prevalence of intI1 and intI2 genes was 60% and 25%, respectively. In 6 (15%) isolates, both genes were detected. The most frequent ESBL gene detected in all of the isolates was blaTEM . Also, no detection for mcr1 and mcr2 antibiotic resistance genes was reported. Rep-PCR identified 39(GTG)5 types (G1-G39) of 40 isolates that 38 isolates had unique patterns.

CONCLUSION: In this study, 82.5% of isolates were MDR with high antibiotic resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The intI1 and bla TEM were the most prevalent genes in the integrase and ESBL gene family. High diversity was seen in the isolates with Rep-PCR. The increasing rate of MDR isolates with a high prevalence of resistance genes could be alarming and demonstrate the need for hygienic procedures to prevent the increased antibiotic resistance rate in the future.

PMID:34212042 | PMC:PMC8211507 | DOI:10.1155/2021/9952769