Fungal infections after liver transplantation: outcomes and risk factors revisited in the MELD era.

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Fungal infections after liver transplantation: outcomes and risk factors revisited in the MELD era.

Clin Transplant. 2013 Jul-Aug;27(4):E454-61

Authors: Saliba F, Delvart V, Ichaï P, Kassis N, Botterel F, Mihaila L, Azoulay D, Adam R, Castaing D, Bretagne S, Samuel D

Abstract
Antifungal prophylaxis is recommended in high-risk patients, but risk criteria remain unclear and the predictive value of Model of End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score is unknown. In a retrospective, single-center analysis of 667 liver transplants, potential risk factors for fungal infection were assessed, including MELD score. Antifungal prophylaxis was administered in 198 patients (29.4%). During follow-up (mean 43.6 ± 29.6 months), 263 patients (39.4%) developed ≥ 1 episode of fungal infection, and 187 (28.0%) patients developed a probable or proven invasive fungal infection requiring systemic antifungal treatment. Patients receiving antifungal prophylaxis had a lower incidence of fungal infection (29.8% vs. 43.5% without prophylaxis, p < 0.001) and invasive fungal infection (17.7% vs. 32.4%, p < 0.001). One-yr patient survival was 91%, 85% and 69%, respectively, in patients with no fungal infection, fungal colonization and treated invasive fungal infection (p < 0.001); graft survival was 88%, 85% and 66% (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that MELD score of 20-30 or ≥ 30 was associated with a 2.0-fold or 4.3-fold increase in relative risk of fungal infection, respectively, and a 2.1-fold or 3.1-fold increase in relative risk of invasive fungal infection. In conclusion, liver transplant patients with a MELD score ≥ 20, and particularly patients with a score ≥ 30, are candidates for antifungal prophylaxis.

PMID: 23656358 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]