Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2020 Nov;130(5):533-546. doi: 10.1016/j.oooo.2020.08.011. Epub 2020 Aug 18.
Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection that requires knowledge of the various clinical presentations and management strategies for successful treatment. Numerous local and systemic factors contribute to the development of candidiasis, and the infections can range from superficial mucocutaneous overgrowths to invasive bloodstream infections with a high mortality rate. In addition to Candida albicans, various fungal strains have been isolated from the oral cavity, including C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and many others. Antifungal agents are available in various forms, each with differing indications, dosing regimens, adverse effects, and drug interactions. Some antifungal agents are available as oral suspensions, pastilles, or creams, whereas others are administered systemically in capsule or intravenous form. This review describes the various presentations of oral candidiasis and the diagnostic methods and treatment alternatives, with a specific focus on pharmacologic management. Spectra of activity, mechanisms of action, adverse reactions, drug interactions, and dosing regimens are explored in the context of both topical and systemic pharmacotherapy used to treat candidiasis. Polyenes (nystatin, amphotericin B); azoles (ketoconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole); and echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin) are discussed. Novel approaches in antifungal therapy with the use of probiotics are also reviewed.