Fungal invasion of epithelial cells.
Microbiol Res. 2014 Mar 12;
Authors: Yang W, Yan L, Wu C, Zhao X, Tang J
Interaction between host cells and invasive Candida plays a large role in the pathogenicity of Candida species. Fungal-induced endocytosis and active penetration are the two distinct, yet complementary invasion mechanisms of invasive candidiasis. Induced endocytosis is a microorganism-triggered, epithelial-driven, clathrin-mediated and actin-dependent process. During the fundamental pathological process of induced endocytosis, invasins (Als3 and Ssa1), which mediate the binding of host epithelial surface proteins, are expressed by Candida species on the hyphal surface. Sequentially, the interaction between invasins and host epithelial surface proteins stimulates the recruitment of clathrin, dynamin and cortactin to the sites where Candida enters epithelial cells, which in turn induce the actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Actin cytoskeleton provides the force required for fungal internalization. Parallely, active penetration of Candida can directly pass through epithelial cells possibly due to progressive elongation of hyphae and physical forces. Several molecules, such as secreted hydrolases and Als3, can affect the protective barrier of the epithelium and make Candida actively penetrate into epithelial cells through intercellular gaps of epithelial layers.
PMID: 24670964 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]